India attends the 27th session of COP to UNFCCC

Dec 19: An inter-ministerial delegation from India attended the 27th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

The parties at the conference came together to advance on global collective action on mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage, climate finance, etc. with a view to achieving the goals under the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement.

India emphasised the necessity to adhere to the principles of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement, which include, inter-alia, equity, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR-RC), and respective capabilities, and that developed countries must take the lead in climate action as well as the provision of climate finance and technology transfer. This effort was also undertaken jointly with several other developing country partners and groups. As a consequence, these principles are reflected extensively in the ‘Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan’ and other decisions of COP 27.

COP 27 has been termed an “implementation COP.” Major outcomes of COP 27 inter-alia include decision on establishing a loss and damage fund and work programmes for mitigation, just transition, and climate action in agriculture. India’s efforts included focusing on equity, mainstreaming national circumstances and concerns for adaptation in agriculture, the need for equity while pursuing any specific results on global peaking, net zero, and emission reduction targets, supporting fair shares of the global carbon budget, and making funding arrangements for loss and damage. India’s efforts also led to the inclusion of a reference to the need for a transition to sustainable lifestyles together with sustainable patterns of production and consumption in the cover decision titled ‘Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan’. At COP 27, India’s negotiations were based on the foundational principle of equity and the best available science to draw developed countries’ attention to their unfulfilled commitments. The G77+China, which represents more than 80% of the world population, united to produce just and equitable outcomes. In COP 26 and COP 27, India contributed to decisions that have explicitly made unprecedented expressions of regret and concern at the failure of developed countries to meet their commitments in climate finance.

In the cover decision titled Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan; countries have reaffirmed the Paris Agreement temperature goal of holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognising that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change.

India’s position is reflected in decisions relating to the reduction of greenhouse gases and extending financial support to developing countries. The decision on ‘matters relating to the work programme for urgently scaling up mitigation ambition’ emphasises the urgent need to increase efforts to collectively reduce emissions through accelerated action and the implementation of domestic mitigation measures. In this context, the decision recalls relevant provisions of the Paris Agreement, including obligations on the part of the developed countries to take the lead by undertaking economy-wide absolute emission reduction targets and providing support to the developing countries.

The ‘Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan’ inter-alia urges the developed countries to provide enhanced support, including through financial resources, technology transfer, and capacity-building, to assist developing country parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation, in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention.

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