Bilateral Mechanism for Flood Mitigation with Nepal

Several transboundary tributaries of the Ganga basin system, like the Sarda, Ghaghra, Rapti, Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Bagmati, Kamla, Kosi, etc., originate from Nepal. India has been consistently cooperating with Nepal to derive mutual benefits like drinking water, power, irrigation, and flood control from these rivers through various bilateral agreements and treaties. The related issues are discussed in the existing India-Nepal bilateral three-tier mechanism, comprising of (i) Joint Ministerial Level Commission on Water Resources (JMCWR), (ii) Joint Committee on Water Resources (JCWR), and (iii) Joint Standing Technical Committee (JSTC).
Currently, the Flood Forecasting and Early Warning System on rivers flowing from Nepal to India is in place. The Government of India is having regular dialogue with the Government of Nepal at various levels to mitigate floods caused by rivers coming from Nepal.
As a non-structural measure of flood management, flood forecasts are formulated and issued for rivers common to Nepal and India, namely the Sharda, Ghaghra, Rapti, Gandak, Burhi-Gandak, Bagmati, Kamala, Kosi, and Mahananda, using meteorological and hydro-meteorological data available through the website of the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal. During the monsoon season, these data are updated hourly and are directly used in the 24-hour flood forecasts produced by the Central Water Commission’s Divisional Flood Control Rooms in Lucknow and Patna.
The Government of India has been regularly interacting with the Government of Nepal for the construction of dams on these rivers for the mutual benefit of the two countries, which includes flood control. Pancheshwar Development Authority (PDA) has been set up jointly by India and Nepal for the execution, operation, and maintenance of the Pancheshwar Multi-purpose Project on the river Sharda. Survey and investigation work, including the preparation of DPRs, of the Sapta Kosi High Dam Project and the Sun Kosi Storage and Diversion Scheme in the Sapta Kosi Basin in Nepal have been undertaken jointly by India and Nepal.

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